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The purpose of this project is to review the past research, development, and practice of lunar surface navigation and to explore current and future technologies for future lunar surface navigation missions. The intent is to provide a bridge between the development of past and future lunar navigation systems.
The fundamental theory of lunar surface navigation is explained, including the lunar navigator's environment, the navigation model, dead reckoning, and fixing. Celestial, landmark, and satellite fixing schemes are discussed. The actual practice of lunar surface navigation in the case of the Apollo Lunar Rovers and the Soviet Lunakhod unmanned lunar rovers is reviewed. The conclusion is a look at current Earth-based navigation technologies which may apply to future lunar surface navigation systems, including developments in navigation computers and software, satellite navigation, and advances in solid-state navigation systems. Recommendations are made for further research.